The Millstone Times
Monroe Township News | As We Age
Question: Does Physical Activity Reduce or Increase the Inci- dence of Osteoarthritis? Answer: In the absence of major joint injury, no evidence exists to indicate that regular moderate to vigorous physical ac- tivity in amounts that are commonly recommended for general health benefits increases the risk of developing OA. In addition, limited, weak evidence is available from observational and ani- mal studies to suggest that low-to-moderate levels of recreation- al physical activity, particularly walking, may provide protection against the development of hip and knee OA. Osteoarthritis is a relatively common degenerative condition of the hyaline cartilage lining the joints and affects nearly 27 million US adults, manifested most commonly in the knee and hip. Char- acterized clinically by joint pain, swelling, stiffness, and weakness, OA often results in increased disability and significant negative
personal effects on physical function, mental health, and quality of life. Known major risk factors for OA include genetic predisposition, older age, female sex, history of joint injury, occupational load, and excess body mass. Historically, the "wear and tear" theory of joint degeneration suggests that excess force on the joint cartilage, such as accumulates from vigorous sports and occupational and daily living activities may initiate the pathophysiological process that results in clinical OA . However, some level of physical activity is essential for joint health. Thus, the physical activity guidelines for Americans should include a level of movement or activity to ensure good joint health, while minimizing potential deleterious forces. Women have a higher prevalence and incidence of most types of OA .Women also have lower quadriceps muscle strength, one of the main muscles sup- porting the hip and knee, different anatomical and biomechanical structure, higher rates of obesity, and participate in different types of physical activity than do men , and have different risks of injury even in similar sports. All these factors can influence the risk of OA related to physical activity, suggesting that the relationship may be sex-dependent. For example, quadriceps muscle strength has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development of hip and knee OA even after controlling for excess body weight, age, activity level, injury status, and physical fitness. In fact, the weak protective effect of physical activity participation seems to be stronger among women than men It has been demonstrated that overweight and obese individuals put more stress on their lower-extremity joints during normal ambulation than do nor- mal-weight individuals. This suggests that overweight and obesity would exaggerate impact forces transmitted to the joint during exercise and recreational physical activity, potentially increasing the risk of developing OA. However, evidence suggests that elevated body mass index (BMI) independently predicts incident OA, and that physical activity does not contribute significantly to this increased risk. Physical activity plays an integral role in both weight loss and the maintenance of normal body weight. Previous joint injury is a well-established, independent risk factor for OA. In fact, athletes who sustain major joint injuries, such as anterior cruciate liga- ment ruptures, and undergo surgical reconstruction have premature onset OA (about 10 years early) compared with noninjured athletes. Last, observational study designs such as these cannot determine cause and effect. However, conducting an RCT to investigate the influence of different exercise participation on the rates of incident OA is not feasible due to the long incubation period for OA development and the potential ethical problems of randomizing persons to inactivity. Another study design issue is the inconsistent definition of incident OA. Various outcomes were used across studies including self-reported doctor-diagnosed OA, radiographically-determined OA (with and without symptoms), and incident hospitalization for joint re- placement surgery. It is not known how these different definitions may affect the measures of association. In the absence of joint injury, participation in recreational or leisure physical activities at levels commonly recommended for general health benefits does not increase the risk of developing OA. However, long-term high-level participation in select high-impact sports (e.g., football, soccer, track and field) may be associated with increased risk of OA. As such, health promotion messages should be developed to inform persons choosing to participate in such activ- ities that they may have increased risk for OA, and that modifying other OA risk factors (e.g., maintaining normal body weight, preventing joint injuries) may help to lower risk. For more info on the study visit www.health.gov.
42 The Millstone Times
Made with FlippingBook - Online catalogs